While commonly attributed to Gordon Bruce, who published it in Epilogue, No. 17, Mar. 1973, p. 154, he was preceded by Norm Houghton, who used it with the shirt pocket, and described the technique in Ibidem, No. 12, Dec. 1957, p. 267. Edward Marlo wrote a long chapter on related pocket-loading techniques in Marlo's Magazine, Vol. 6, 1988, p. 11. There he points out an early approach by Jimmy Nuzzo, from The New Tops, Vol. 5 No. 9, Sep. 1965, p. 32. Barrie Richardson also published a novel handling in Club 71, Summer 1994, p. 61.